What Was Benito Mussolini’s Attitude Toward Personal Liberties (2023)


31.one.ii: Italy Nether Mussolini

Italian Fascism nether Benito Mussolini was rooted in Italian nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories.

Key Points

  • Social unrest after World State of war I, led mainly by communists, led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Italy.
  • The liberal institution, fearing a Soviet-style revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party led by Benito Mussolini.
  • In the dark between Oct 27-28, 1922, about 30,000 Fascist blackshirts (paramilitary of the Fascist party) gathered in Rome to demand the resignation of liberal Prime Minister Luigi Facta and the appointment of a new Fascist regime. This consequence is called the “March on Rome.”
  • Betwixt 1925 and 1927, Mussolini progressively dismantled virtually all constitutional and conventional restraints on his ability, building a law state.
  • A police force passed on Christmas Eve 1925 changed Mussolini’s formal championship from “president of the Council of Ministers” to “head of the government” and thereafter he began styling himself as
    Il Duce
    (the leader).
  • On October 25, 1936, Mussolini agreed to form a Rome-Berlin Centrality, sanctioned past a cooperation agreement with Nazi Germany and signed in Berlin, forming the so-called Axis Powers of World State of war Ii.

Key Terms

March on Rome
A march past which Italian dictator Benito Mussolini’due south National Fascist Political party came to power in the Kingdom of Italy.
Benito Mussolini
An Italian political leader, announcer, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Government minister from 1922 to 1943; he ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of commonwealth and set a legal dictatorship.
The paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Political party in Italy and afterwards 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italia.

The socialist agitations that followed the destruction of Globe War I, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to counter-revolution and repression throughout Italy. The liberal establishment, fearing a Soviet-style revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Political party led past Benito Mussolini. In October 1922 the Blackshirts of the National Fascist Party attempted a coup (the “March on Rome”) which failed, but at the last minute, Male monarch Victor Emmanuel Three refused to proclaim a state of siege and appointed Mussolini prime minister. Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship. These actions attracted international attention and eventually inspired similar dictatorships such every bit Nazi Germany and Francoist Spain.

In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, resulting in international alienation and leading to Italy’s withdrawal from the League of Nations; Italy allied with Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan and strongly supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish civil war. In 1939, Italy annexed Albania, a de facto protectorate for decades. Italy entered World War Ii on June ten, 1940. After initially advancing in British Somaliland and Egypt, the Italians were defeated in East Africa, Greece, Russia and North Africa.

Read: Are the Diagonals of an Isosceles Trapezoid Congruent

Mussolini’due south Rise to Ability

The Fascisti, led past ane of Mussolini’s close confidants, Dino Grandi, formed armed squads of war veterans called Blackshirts (or
squadristi) with the goal of restoring order to the streets of Italy with a strong mitt. The blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists, and anarchists at parades and demonstrations; all of these factions were also involved in clashes against each other. The Italian government rarely interfered with the blackshirts’ actions, attributable in part to a looming threat and widespread fear of a communist revolution. The Fascisti grew rapidly, within 2 years transforming themselves into the National Fascist Political party at a congress in Rome. In 1921 Mussolini won election to the Sleeping accommodation of Deputies for the first time.

In the night between October 27-28, 1922, about xxx,000 Fascist blackshirts gathered in Rome to demand the resignation of liberal Prime Minister Luigi Facta and the date of a new Fascist government. This event is known as the “March on Rome.” On the morning of Oct 28, King Victor Emmanuel Iii, who according to the Albertine Statute held the supreme military ability, refused the government request to declare martial law, leading to Facta’s resignation. The King then handed over power to Mussolini (who stayed in his headquarters in Milan during the talks) by asking him to form a new government. The Rex’s controversial decision has been explained by historians as a combination of delusions and fears; Mussolini enjoyed a wide support in the war machine and among the industrial and agrarian elites, while the King and the conservative establishment were afraid of a possible civil war and ultimately idea they could use Mussolini to restore police and order in the country, but failed to foresee the danger of a totalitarian evolution.

What Was Benito Mussolini’s Attitude Toward Personal Liberties (1)

As Prime number Minister, the first years of Mussolini’s rule were characterized by a right-wing coalition government equanimous of Fascists, nationalists, liberals, and ii Cosmic clerics from the Popular Political party. The Fascists made up a modest minority in his original governments. Mussolini’s domestic goal was the eventual establishment of a totalitarian country with himself as supreme leader (Il Duce) a message that was articulated by the Fascist paper
Il Popolo
, at present edited by Mussolini’s brother, Arnaldo. To that finish, Mussolini obtained from the legislature dictatorial powers for one yr (legal nether the Italian constitution of the time). He favored the complete restoration of state authority with the integration of the
Fasci di Combattimento
into the armed forces (the foundation in January 1923 of the
Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale) and the progressive identification of the party with the state. In political and social economic system, he passed legislation that favored the wealthy industrial and agrarian classes (privatizations, liberalizations of rent laws, and dismantlement of the unions).

Between 1925 and 1927, Mussolini progressively dismantled near all constitutional and conventional restraints on his ability, thereby building a police state. A law passed on Christmas Eve 1925 changed Mussolini’s formal championship from “president of the Council of Ministers” to “head of the government” (though he was even so called “Prime Minister” by almost non-Italian outlets). Thereafter he began styling himself every bit
Il Duce

(the leader). He was no longer responsible to Parliament and could be removed simply by the rex. While the Italian constitution stated that ministers were responsible but to the sovereign, in practice it had become all simply impossible to govern confronting the limited volition of Parliament. The Christmas Eve law concluded this practice, and as well made Mussolini the only person competent to determine the torso’s agenda. This police transformed Mussolini’s government into a de facto legal dictatorship. Local autonomy was abolished, and podestàs appointed past the Italian Senate replaced elected mayors and councils.

Fascist Italy

Mussolini’s foremost priority was the subjugation of the minds of the Italian people and the use of propaganda to do then. A lavish cult of personality centered on the figure of Mussolini was promoted by the government.

Mussolini pretended to incarnate the new fascist Übermensch, promoting an aesthetics of exasperated Machism and a cult of personality that attributed to him quasi-divine capacities. At various times afterward 1922, Mussolini personally took over the ministries of the interior, strange affairs, colonies, corporations, defense, and public works. Sometimes he held every bit many every bit seven departments simultaneously equally well as the premiership. He was also caput of the all-powerful Fascist Party and the armed local fascist militia, the MVSN or “Blackshirts,” who terrorized incipient resistances in the cities and provinces. He would later form the OVRA, an institutionalized clandestine police that carried official land support. He thus succeeded in keeping power in his ain hands and preventing the emergence of any rival.

All teachers in schools and universities had to swear an adjuration to defend the fascist government. Newspaper editors were all personally chosen past Mussolini and no one without a document of approving from the fascist party could exercise journalism. These certificates were issued in secret; Mussolini thus skillfully created the illusion of a “free printing.” The merchandise unions were also deprived of independence and integrated into what was called the “corporative” system. The aim (never completely accomplished), inspired by medieval guilds, was to place all Italians in various professional organizations or corporations under clandestine governmental command.

In his early years in power, Mussolini operated equally a pragmatic statesman, trying to achieve advantages only never at the take chances of war with Britain and France. An exception was the bombardment and occupation of Corfu in 1923, following an incident in which Italian military personnel charged by the League of Nations to settle a purlieus dispute between Greece and Albania were assassinated by Greek bandits. At the time of the Corfu incident, Mussolini was prepared to go to state of war with United kingdom, and just drastic pleading past Italian Navy leadership, who argued that Italian Navy was no friction match for the British Imperial Navy, persuaded him to have a diplomatic solution. In a hugger-mugger speech to the Italian military leadership in January 1925, Mussolini argued that Italy needed to win
spazio vitale
(vital infinite), and every bit such his ultimate goal was to join “the ii shores of the Mediterranean and of the Indian Ocean into a single Italian territory.”

Path to War

Past the late 1930s, Mussolini’s obsession with demography led him to conclude that Britain and French republic were finished equally powers, and that Federal republic of germany and Italia were destined to rule Europe if for no other reason than their demographic forcefulness. Mussolini stated his belief that failing birth rates in French republic were “absolutely horrifying” and that the British Empire was doomed because a quarter of the British population was older than fifty. Equally such, Mussolini believed that an brotherhood with Germany was preferable to an alignment with Britain and France equally it was better to be allied with the strong instead of the weak. Mussolini saw international relations every bit a Social Darwinian struggle between “virile” nations with high nascence rates that were destined to destroy “effete” nations with depression birth rates. Such was the extent of Mussolini’s conventionalities that it was Italy’south destiny to rule the Mediterranean considering of the land’s high birth rate that he neglected much of the serious planning and preparations necessary for a war with the Western powers.

On October 25, 1936, Mussolini agreed to form a Rome-Berlin Axis, sanctioned past a cooperation agreement with Nazi Germany and signed in Berlin. At the Munich Conference in September 1938, Mussolini connected to pose equally a moderate working for European peace while helping Nazi Germany annex the Sudetenland. The 1936 Axis agreement with Germany was strengthened by the Pact of Steel signed on May 22, 1939, which bound Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in a full military alliance.

What Was Benito Mussolini’s Attitude Toward Personal Liberties (2)

Hitler and Mussolini: On 25 Oct 1936, an Axis was declared betwixt Italy and Germany.


  • Italy Nether Mussolini

Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldhistory2/chapter/italy-under-mussolini/


What Was Benito Mussolini’s Attitude Toward Personal Liberties? ›

What was Benito Mussolini's attitude toward personal liberties? The state should decide which personal liberties were needed. How did Benito Mussolini attempt to increase Italy's power?

What was Benito Mussolini's personal life like? ›

As an adult, Benito Mussolini would have two wives and many mistresses. He had one child with his first wife, Ida Dalser, but would eventually abandon them and seek to hide them from the public eye. He would have five children—three boys and two girls—by another wife, Rachele Guidi.

What does Benito Mussolini believe in? ›

Mussolini experimented with socialism as a young man, but as Europe was consumed by World War I he was drawn to nationalism. Wounded in the war, he came home in 1917 and began to formulate the fascist ideology, which celebrated military might, extreme devotion to country and the superiority of the Italian people.

How did Benito Mussolini treat citizens? ›

During the war, Mussolini's treatment of Italian citizens became even more brutal. He implemented policies of forced conscription and forced labor, and Italian citizens who were suspected of opposing his regime were subject to arrest, imprisonment, and execution.

What did Mussolini do that was bad? ›

Under his leadership, squads of militants attacked, beat and killed fellow Italians; later, once he had become the authoritarian ruler of Italy, he oversaw brutality in Ethiopia, an alliance with Hitler and the persecution of Italy's Jewish population and others, among other crimes.

What was Benito Mussolini best known for? ›

Benito Mussolini was an Italian political leader who became the fascist dictator of Italy from 1925 to 1945. Originally a revolutionary socialist and a newspaper journalist and editor, he forged Italy's violent paramilitary fascist movement in 1919 and declared himself prime minister in 1922.

What was Mussolini's promise to the people? ›

Mussolini was a fiery and charismatic speaker. He promised to end corruption and replace turmoil with order. He also spoke of reviving Roman greatness, pledging to turn the Mediterranean into a “Roman lake” once again.

How did Benito Mussolini disrespect human rights? ›

Once he had the power, Mussolini began working so he could keep power. He quickly outlawed all other political groups and ended elections. He took away the freedom of speech and of the press. People against Mussolini were either murdered or exiled.

Why did people support Mussolini? ›

Dr. Hull identified three main reasons why Fascist sympathies were present in the US during this period: Mussolini's presentation of masculinity; the Italian corporate state's apparent ability to provide a solution to inherent problems of democracy; and Fascism's capacity to offer a path towards economic recovery.

What were two social goals of Mussolini and what actions he took to achieve them? ›

Mussolini wanted to spur economic growth and bring an end to conflicts between workers and owners. To achieve these goals he brought the economy under state control, made strikes illegal, and allowed representatives of business, labor, and government to control various economic activities.

Why was Mussolini a weak leader? ›

Mussolini had both strengths and weaknesses as a leader of Italy. He was very successful in his consolidation of power, his use of propaganda and in mending relations with the Catholic church. However areas in which he was weak were his ill-thought out economic policies, his foreign policy and his Nazi relations.

How did Mussolini define fascism? ›

Mussolini defined fascism as being a left-wing collectivistic ideology in opposition to socialism, liberalism, democracy and individualism.

What did Mussolini want to achieve for Italy? ›

Mussolini was increasingly convinced that society should organize itself not along lines of social class or political affiliation, but around a strong national identity. He believed that only a “ruthless and energetic” dictator could make a “clean sweep” of Italy and restore it to its national promise.

What did Mussolini say about Italy? ›

Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State.” Benito Mussolini's formulation remains one of the most enduring definitions of modern totalitarianism.

What were the facts about Mussolini's early life? ›

Born on July 29, 1883, Mussolini gained a reputation for bullying and fighting during his childhood. At age 10 he was expelled from a religious boarding school for stabbing a classmate in the hand, and another stabbing incident took place at his next school. He also admitted to knifing a girlfriend in the arm.

Did Mussolini have a lover? ›

Clara "Claretta" Petacci (Italian: [klaˈretta peˈtattʃi]; 28 February 1912 – 28 April 1945) was a mistress of the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

What happened to Mussolini's wife? ›

Ida Dalser and her son by Mussolini both died in mental institutions after she tried unsuccessfully to force the dictator to recognise their marriage and his son, also named Benito.

What was Mussolini's motivation? ›

He only knew one thing for sure: He wanted to rule Italy. In a speech before thousands of his supporters in October 1922, Mussolini declared, “Either the government will be given to us, or we will seize it by marching on Rome.” A few days later, he unleashed his followers on a massive march to Italy's capital city.

How did Mussolini feel about the history of ancient Rome? ›

Despite Mussolini's earlier antipathy to the very idea of Rome as Italy's capital – he notoriously thought the city a squalid metropolis, fit only for 'shoeshine boys and prostitutes' – it was later claimed (not least by his mistress and biographer Margherita Sarfatti) that he had idolized ancient Rome since his ...

What was Mussolini's fascism? ›

Mussolini's Fascism

Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. Fascism in Italy combined elements of corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, militarism, and anti-Communism.

What did Mussolini promise for Italy? ›

Mussolini was a fiery and charismatic speaker. He promised to end corruption and replace turmoil with order. He also spoke of reviving Roman greatness, pledging to turn the Mediterranean into a “Roman lake” once again. “combat squads.” The squads wore black shirts to emulate an earlier nationalist revolt.

What are 3 characteristics of Benito Mussolini? ›

Here are some of Mussolini's leadership traits:
  • Passionate about Italy. ...
  • Dramatic orator and flamboyant.
  • An advocate of fascist ideology.
  • Arrogant and Xenophobic.
  • Highly Intelligent and manipulative.
  • Imperial ambitions.
Jul 11, 2020

Who was Mussolini's best friend? ›

In the nineteenth century, Giuseppe Mazzini, one of the founding fathers of modern nationalism, had pioneered the idea of the friendship amongst nations. Above all, the Mussolini and Hitler friendship built on the idea of friendship of European monarchs with one another.

Did Mussolini have a personality disorder? ›

Mussolini was a hypomanic. He had the aggressiveness and obsessive- compulsive reaction of the usual political leader, but in addition he had the euphoria, the ideas of grandeur and the pressure of activity that ac COl! lPany hypomania.

Did Mussolini have an ego? ›

Alfio: Mussolini's ego is… immense. In fact, one of the mottos was, "Mussolini ha sempre ragione." "Mussolini is always right." Francesca: He certainly had a vision of himself as a Man of Genius with a capital G — a man who had a superior vision of society and the world.

Did Mussolini's children survive? ›

The Il Duce's other children were his sons Vittorio and Romano and daughter, Anna Maria. Their activities during the war were obscure, but they survived Mussolini's overthrow, Nazi occupation of Italy, Allied invasion of Italy, and vicious fighting between Italian partisans and fascists' loyal to Mussolini.

Who hung Mussolini? ›

Mussolini and his executioner

Walter Audisio, the Italian partisan believed to have executed him.

Who was the last woman executed in Italy? ›

Italy . The last woman executed in Italy was probably Laura D'Oriano, (age 30) who was sentenced to death for espionage for the Allies by the TSDS (special court for the defence of the state) and executed by shooting at Forte Bravetta in Rome on the 16th of January 1943.


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